Dioscorides served as a physician in the army of Nero. He treated patients with plant-based medicines. He made use of the analgesic and hypnotic properties of atropa, mandrake, opium and hemlock in different surgical procedures. Avicenna of Persia provided an early explanation of cryoanalgesia, and Leonardo da Vinci wrote an anatomical description of the nerves and their relation to pain.
Similarly, Descartes contributed the idea of pain traveling along fine threads or tubes to the brain. James Moore compressed the sciatic and femoral nerves while performing amputations of lower limbs. The first modern regional anesthesia can be attributed to the ophthalmologist Koller, who, as a result of his research into the properties of coca , was able to perform glaucoma surgery in his Viennese clinic without causing any pain to the patient. Some years before, Francis Rynd had invented the first metallic syringe, facilitating the development of infiltration anesthesia.
Halsted carried out the first brachial plexus block in At the beginning of the 20th century, the evolution of pharmacology was accompanied by the development and production of safer new local anesthetics which did not produce the side effects which made local anesthesia with cocaine so unpopular at the end of the previous century. In , Alfred Einhorn synthesized procaine, which he patented under the trade name Novocain.
This would be the most widely-used local anesthetic until the s. In , Hirschel described the first percutaneous approach to an axillary brachial plexus block. More techniques were subsequently developed, such as those detailed by Kulenkampff and Winnie.
Spanish/French > English translator specialising in Medical translation
In , Von Perthes, basing his research on Galvani's 18th century publications, described the use of an electrical stimulator on the peripheral nerves. This technique would later be used in nerve location, but not until the second half of the century when Yasuda and Magora applied it in regional anesthesia to locate the nerve trunks and peripheral nerves they wished to block.
In , the first scanner with gray-scale technology was introduced, marking the beginning of the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic technique. In , La Grange and colleagues used ultrasound to carry out a supraclavicular brachial plexus block, identifying the subclavian vein and artery with the Doppler technique. From many articles were published detailing different approaches and different regional blocks carried out using ultrasound to locate the different plexus. In , Kapral and colleagues published an article describing the use of ultrasound to directly visualize the brachial plexus and observe the spread of the local anesthetic in a supraclavicular brachial plexus block.
Since then the technological advances of ultrasound, together with the wide acceptance of this technology among anesthetists who perform regional anesthesia, has brought us to the present situation. Visit my webiste at jmturnertranslations. I translate from Spanish and French to English, and my specialist domain is medical translation. I learned a great deal about human anatomy, diagnostic techniques and the treatment of pathologies over the course of the project, and created and managed extensive glossaries of medical terminology.
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Condition: Used: Good. Book Description Harlequin Julia, Condition: Very Good. Great condition with minimal wear, aging, or shelf wear. Seller Inventory P Gina Wilkins. Publisher: Harlequin Julia , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.