Aragorn leads an army of men from Gondor and Rohan to march on the Black Gate to distract Sauron from his true danger.
His army is vastly outnumbered by the great might of Sauron. He claims it for himself and puts it on his finger. Gollum suddenly reappears. He struggles with Frodo and bites off Frodo's finger with the Ring still on it. Celebrating wildly, Gollum loses his footing and falls into the Fire, taking the Ring with him. When the Ring is destroyed, Sauron loses his power forever. The four hobbits make their way back to the Shire, only to find that it has been taken over by men directed by one "Sharkey" whom they later discover to be Saruman.
The hobbits raise a rebellion and liberate the Shire, though 19 hobbits are killed and 30 wounded. He is slain in turn by hobbit archers, and the War of the Ring comes to its true end on Frodo's very doorstep. Merry and Pippin are celebrated as heroes. Sam marries Rosie Cotton and uses his gifts from Galadriel to help heal the Shire. But Frodo is still wounded in body and spirit, having borne the Ring for so long.
In the appendices, Sam gives his daughter Elanor the Red Book of Westmarch , which contains the story of Bilbo's adventures and the War of the Ring as witnessed by the hobbits. Sam is then said to have crossed west over the Sea himself, the last of the Ring-bearers. Some characters in The Lord of the Rings are unequivocal protagonists , and others are absolute antagonists. However despite criticism that the book's characters "are all either black or white", some of the 'good' characters have darker sides that feature in the story, and likewise some of the villains have "good impulses".
The Lord of the Rings started as a sequel to J. Tolkien's work The Hobbit , published in Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly, and responded with several stories he had already developed. The story would not be finished until 12 years later, in , and would not be fully published until , when Tolkien was 63 years old. Persuaded by his publishers, he started "a new Hobbit" in December The idea for the first chapter "A Long-Expected Party" arrived fully formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of Writing was slow, because Tolkien had a full-time academic position, and needed to earn further money as a university examiner.
Tolkien made another concerted effort in , and showed the manuscript to his publishers in Tolkien Collection at Marquette University. The influence of the Welsh language , which Tolkien had learned, is summarized in his essay English and Welsh : "If I may once more refer to my work.
The Lord of the Rings, in evidence: the names of persons and places in this story were mainly composed on patterns deliberately modelled on those of Welsh closely similar but not identical. This element in the tale has given perhaps more pleasure to more readers than anything else in it.
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Tolkien included neither any explicit religion nor cult in his work. Rather the themes, moral philosophy, and cosmology of The Lord of the Rings reflect his Catholic worldview. In one of his letters Tolkien states, "The Lord of the Rings is of course a fundamentally religious and Catholic work; unconsciously so at first, but consciously in the revision.
That is why I have not put in, or have cut out, practically all references to anything like 'religion', to cults or practices, in the imaginary world. For the religious element is absorbed into the story and the symbolism. Some locations and characters were inspired by Tolkien's childhood in Birmingham , where he first lived near Sarehole Mill , and later near Edgbaston Reservoir. This shows in such names as "Underhill", and the description of Saruman's industrialization of Isengard and The Shire.
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It has also been suggested that The Shire and its surroundings were based on the countryside around Stonyhurst College in Lancashire where Tolkien frequently stayed during the s. After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in The Return of the King was especially delayed due to Tolkien revising the ending and preparing appendices some of which had to be left out because of space constraints.
Tolkien did not like the title The Return of the King , believing it gave away too much of the storyline, but deferred to his publisher's preference. Tolkien was initially opposed to titles being given to each two-book volume, preferring instead the use of book titles: e. The Lord of the Rings : Vol. However these individual book titles were later scrapped, and after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien initially suggested the titles: Vol.
Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings " trilogy ". In a letter to the poet W. Auden who famously reviewed the final volume in  , Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work  though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book. The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits.
In the early s Donald A.
Lord of the Rings auction has $2.4m of props up for sale from trilogy
Wollheim , science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books , claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States. Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success.
Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright. On September 4, , the novel debuted on New York Times' Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by December 4, a position it held for eight weeks. In , for the 50th Anniversary Edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull, under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in , and never been corrected.
Further corrections were added to the 60th Anniversary Edition in Several editions, notably the 50th Anniversary Edition, combine all three books into one volume, with the result that pagination varies widely over the various editions. From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings , chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.
The novel has been translated, with various degrees of success, into at least 56 languages. Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch , with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.
While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed, reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one. The initial review in the Sunday Telegraph described it as "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century". Auden , an admirer of Tolkien's writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton 's Paradise Lost.
New York Times reviewer Judith Shulevitz criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself".
Both the characters and the work itself are, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fibre". Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. Lewis , had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron. Here is a book which will break your heart. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the s.
The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys. In similar polls both Germany  and Australia  also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a poll of Amazon. Although The Lord of the Rings was published in the s, Tolkien insisted that the One Ring was not an allegory for the atomic bomb ,  nor were his works a strict allegory of any kind, but were open to interpretation as the reader saw fit.
A few critics have found what they consider to be racial elements in the story, generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race e. The opinions that pit races against one another are likely to reflect Tolkien's critique on war rather than a racist perspective. In The Two Towers , the character Samwise sees a fallen foe and considers for a moment the humanity of this fallen Southron who, just moments before, is shown to be a man of color.
Critics have also seen social class rather than race as being the determining factor in the portrayal of good and evil. The book has been read as fitting the model of Joseph Campbell 's " monomyth ". The book has been adapted for radio four times. In the s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation.
For this purpose it is generally edited into 13 one-hour episodes. Following J. Tolkien 's sale of the film rights for The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in , rock band The Beatles considered a corresponding film project and approached Stanley Kubrick as a potential director; however, Kubrick turned down the offer, explaining to John Lennon that he thought the novel could not be adapted into a film due to its immensity.
After the script was written, which included many changes to the story and the characters, the production company scrapped the project, thinking it too expensive and too risky. Two film adaptations of the book have been made. The first was J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , by animator Ralph Bakshi , the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story; it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers. A three-issue comic book version of the movie was also published in Europe but not printed in English , with illustrations by Luis Bermejo.
When Bakshi's investors shied away of financing the second film that would complete the story, the remainder of the story was covered in an animated television special by Rankin-Bass. Stylistically, the two segments are very different. All three parts won multiple Academy Awards , including consecutive Best Picture nominations. The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars something only two other films in history, Ben-Hur and Titanic , have accomplished , including Best Picture , Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay.
The Hunt for Gollum , a fan film based on elements of the appendices to The Lord of the Rings , was released on the internet in May and has been covered in major media.
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In November , Amazon acquired the global television rights to The Lord of the Rings , committing to a multi-season television series. The series will not be a direct adaptation of the books, but will instead introduce new stories that are set before The Fellowship of the Ring.
Tolkien's original writings". The enormous popularity of Tolkien's work expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the s, and enjoys popularity to the present day. The opus has spawned many imitators, such as The Sword of Shannara , which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read". However, Gary Gygax , lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings , stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.
Research also suggests that some consumers of fantasy games derive their motivation from trying to create an epic fantasy narrative which is influenced by The Lord of the Rings. Rock bands of the s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time; British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings , such as mentioning Gollum in " Ramble On ", the Misty Mountains in " Misty Mountain Hop ", and Ringwraiths in " The Battle of Evermore ".
In , the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book titled Sagan om ringen translated as "The Saga of the Ring", which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time. The songs "Rivendell" and "The Necromancer" by the progressive rock band Rush were inspired by Tolkien.
Styx also paid homage to Tolkien on their album Pieces of Eight with the song "Lords of the Ring", while Black Sabbath 's song, "The Wizard", which appeared on their debut album , was influenced by Tolkien's hero, Gandalf. Later, from the s to the present day, many heavy metal acts have been influenced by Tolkien. Blind Guardian has written many songs relating to Middle-earth, including the full concept album Nightfall in Middle Earth.
Almost the entire discography of Battlelore are Tolkien-themed. Summoning 's music is based upon Tolkien and holds the distinction of the being the only artist to have crafted a song entirely in the Black Speech of Mordor. The Finnish metal band Nightwish and the Norwegian metal band Tristania have also incorporated many Tolkien references into their music. They are not to be confused with the '70s folk rock band Thorin Eichenschild. In the symphony was awarded the Sudler Composition Award , awarded biennially for best wind band composition.
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The Danish Tolkien Ensemble have released a number of albums that feature the complete poems and songs of The Lord of the Rings set to music, with some featuring recitation by Christopher Lee. The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the s, but especially throughout the s and s, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga.
Since then all "authorized" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors. Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Pauline Baynes and the Brothers Hildebrandt , to figurines and miniatures to computer, video , tabletop and role-playing games.
Rex took his name from the hobbit Peregrin Took better known as Pippin. Took later recorded under the pseudonym ' Shagrat the Vagrant ', before forming a band called Shagrat in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 4 July This article is about the novel. For the film series, see The Lord of the Rings film series. For other uses, see The Lord of the Rings disambiguation. Fantasy Adventure. Main article: J. Tolkien's influences. Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings.
Main article: Reception of J. Main article: Themes of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Works inspired by J. Middle-earth portal Novels portal. Lewis's "lies breathed through silver". Mythopoeia was also the title of one of his poems, first published in Tree and Leaf in The two were in fact first and second cousins, once removed either way his paternal great-great-uncle's son's son and his maternal great-aunt's son.
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And in that sense he was not weak like his brother. Golden Lotus. I would add to the Faramir debate but I'm too busy singing the Christmas carols with new lyrics. I'm pretty sure I can teach that to my five year old and take it round the neighborhood. Appropriately enough, the LOTR seriesd as been replete with some fine songs.
An open-eyed man falling into the well.